Egypt

Mind, Body and Soul… A world wide movement that aims to: build strong kids, strong families and strong communities.

Descriptions

History
In 1909 the first local YMCA work was introduced by the American College in Assuit, in 1911 a group of people got together in Assuit City and took the necessary steps, to start the first YMCA in Egypt. In 1922 the International Committee of the US YMCA and Canada YMCA, started the effort to raise a large amount of money to buy the palace of an Ex-Prime Minister to be the Head Quarter in Cairo, for the benefit of YMCA work in Egypt. Dr. John R. Mott of the US YMCA, had an audience with King Fouad, Kind of Egypt, to have his blessing for establishing the YMCA Organization in Egypt. On January 6, 1923, it was the unforgettable day in the history of the YMCA in Egypt, when the Cairo YMCA was inaugurated and took place in a unique place under the auspices of the king.
Country Profile
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world’s great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt’s government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt’s growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure. Population: 78,866,635 (July 2009 est.) Age Structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 13,308,407/female 12,711,900) 15-64 years: 62.7% (male 25,138,546/female 24,342,230) 65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,546,774/female 1,818,778) (2009 est.) Birth Rate: 25.43 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) Death Rate: 4.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) Infant mortality Rate: total: 27.26 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 81 male: 28.93 deaths/1,000 live births female: 25.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.) Life Expectancy: total population: 72.12 years country comparison to the world: 122 male: 69.56 years female: 74.81 years (2009 est.) HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,200 (2007 est.) HIV/AIDS – deaths: fewer than 500 (2007 est.) Ethnic Groups: Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census) Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1% Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 71.4% male: 83% female: 59.4% (2005 est.) Government Type: republic Capital: Cairo Geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends first Friday in August Independence: 28 February 1922 (from the UK) Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Currency: Egyptian pounds (EGP) Population below poverty line: 20% (2005 est.) Transnational Issues: Disputes – international: Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 60,000 – 80,000 (Iraq); 70,198 (Palestinian Territories); 12,157 (Sudan) (2007) Trafficking in persons: current situation: Egypt is a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern European countries to Israel for sexual exploitation, and is a source for children trafficked within the country for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude, although the extent to which children are trafficked internally is unknown; children were also recruited for domestic and agricultural work; some of these children face conditions of involuntary servitude, such as restrictions on movement, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or sexual abuse tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Egypt is on the Tier 2 Watch List for the third year in a row because it did not provide evidence of increasing efforts to investigate and prosecute traffickers; however, in July 2007, the government established the “National Coordinating Committee to Combat and Prevent Trafficking in Persons,” which improved inter-governmental coordination on anti-trafficking initiatives; Egypt made no discernible efforts to punish trafficking crimes in 2007 and the Egyptian penal code does not prohibit all forms of trafficking; Egypt did not increase its services to trafficking victims during the reporting period (2008) Illicit drugs: transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations **Information retreived from CIA – The World Factbook: www.cia.gov
Contact
72 Sharia El Gomhouria P O Box 142, Fagala Cairo, EGYPT Tel: 20 2 5917 360 Fax: 20 2 589 5092 Email: ymcaegypt@link.net